Endangered species



The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1963, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit.
The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to IUCN (1996), the formally stated goals of the Red List are (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a global level, (2) to draw attention to the magnitude and importance of threatened biodiversity, (3) to influence national and international policy and decision-making, and (4) to provide information to guide actions to conserve biological diversity.
Categories
Species are classified by the IUCN Red List into nine groups, set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation.


Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining.
Extinct in the Wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range.
Critically Endangered (CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild.
Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild.
Near Threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future.
Least Concern (LC) – Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
Data Deficient (DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction.
Not Evaluated (NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

1.      Snow leopard:
Location: Himalayan range
Status: Endangered
Population: 400-700
Facts:
·         The largest tail in wildcat family
o   Helps to balance the body
o   Provides warmth in cold
·         Magnificent camouflage with surrounding.
·         Can not roar like tiger or lion, but muaaaw like a cat
·         Two of them never share a same rosette pattern. Its unique as our fingerprint
·         Poaching: for Skin and bones, which are used in Chinese medicine system.
2.      Sarus crane:
Location: India
Status: Vulnerable
Population: less than 3000
Facts:
·         The tallest flying bird of the world.
·         Symbol of faithful relationship
·         Adults form lifelong pairs
·         Every year return to the same place for nesting
·         Dance and greet each other
·         Poaching: Hunting for meat
o   Eg. Hatta & Bavli villages of MP
Sarus Crane
 3.      Gangetic Dolphin
Location: River Ganga, Brahmputra
Status: Endangered
Population: 1200-2000

Facts:
·         Local names: Ganga-Susu, Brahmputra-hihu
·         Also known as blind dolphin because of poor vision
·         They have melon for echolocation
·         Breath like mammals so have to come up.
·         Threats: Hunting for meat.
o   One dolphin contains more than 100 kg of meat
o   Sometimes entangled in fishing nets
o   Hunted for oil
§  Used in treatment of rheumatism
§  Used by fisherman to attract fishes
4.      Gharial:
Location: Girwa & Chambal rivers only (no where else in the world)
Status: Critically Endangered
Population: 200 to 300

Facts:
·         Surviving  since last 6 million years
·         Jaws are very delicate so they only hunt fishes
·         Males contains pot like structure on the snout
·         Lenth of male could be more than 5 m
·         Threats:
o   Hunting: For meat-its believed that by eating pot like structure one can be more aphrodisiac
o   Sand mining: females lay eggs in nearby sand but, because of sand mining nesting habitat is destroyed.
Gharial
o   Before 60 years, we had more than 10000 gharials but today, only 200 to 300.
5.      Great pied hornbill
Location: Northeast, western ghats,  Himalayan foothills
Status: Near threaten

Facts:
·         Build cavity nest inside shallow of plants
·         Hunted by local people in Northeast region to show bravery, to celebrate
·         Contains casque over bill.
·         Seed dispersal agents
·         Form lifelong pairs
·         30 cm long bill
·         Threats:
o   Hunting
o   Use of feathers and bill in the festivals
o   Deforestation, loss of nesting habitat
Great Pied Hornbill

6.      One horned rhino:
Location: Assam, UP
Status: Vulnerable
Population: less than 2500

Facts:
·         Cannot sweat so play with water and mud
·         Horn could be 0.5 m long
·         Found in Kaziranga national park
o   Kazi & Ranga were a boy and a girl respectively. They lived in nearby village. They loved each other but parents and villagers did not agree for the merrage. So, they disappeared in the forest then villagers named that place as Kaziranga.
·         Threats: hunting for horns
o   Myth: horn has some mythological power. By wearing ring made up of horn, one can be immortal.
7.      Asian elephant
Location: northeast, western ghats, Himalayan foothills
Population: 30000
Status: endangered
Facts:
·         Daily requires more than 200 kg of vegetation which includes more than 50 species. Its takes two months for 5 member family to eat that.
·         Daily requires more than 100 lt water
·         Male elephant without tusk: Makhna
o   With one tusk: Ganesha
·         Threats: Hunting for tusks
o   Starvation
o   Deforestation
o   Conflicts with humans
Asian Elephant

8.      King cobra:
Location: Northeast, western ghat
Status: vulnerable

Facts:
·         Largest venomous snake of the world
o   Length:  upto 5.6 m
·         Poison is enough to kill 20 people
·         Only snake in the world who builds nest
·         Eats only other snake
·         Threats:
o   Hunting for protection, leather and meat
9.      Asiatic lion:
Location: Sasan gir
Status: endangered
Population: 411

Facts:
·         Only cat showing sexual dimorphism
·         Male lion is worshipped by maldharis as symbol of power
·         More than 30% diet includes livestock animals
·         Gir’s lion carrying capacity is 270 but there are 411
·         Lions are not exploring new areas but, only reclaiming their traditional corridor where they ruled for centauries before we took it away.
Asiatic Lion

10.  Great Indian bustard:
Location: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra
Status: Critically endangered
Population: less than 200.

Facts:
·         IUCN predicted it would become extinct in next two decades
·         State bird of rajasthan
·         Heaviest flying bird of india.
o   Male: 15 kg
o   Female: 12 kg
·         Height: 150 cm
·         Threats: Hunting for meat
o   Grassland destruction
11.  Forest owlet
Location: Maharashtra, MP
Status: Critically endangered
Population: about 100

Facts:
·         Hunts during day (diurnal) not during night (nocturnal)
·         Threats:
o   Deforestation
o   Forest fires
o   Hunting 


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